Jane Seymour gave birth to the future King Edward VI at Hampton Court. She had complications at childbirth and was seriously ill at the christening of the prince on the 15th October and is said to have suffered from puerperal fever and died on the 24th October.
Also in the month of October, Lady Jane Grey, the great-granddaughter of Henry VII was born.
The Queen's funeral was held on the 12th November and she was laid to rest in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor Castle. Her step-daughter, Lady Mary (later Queen Mary I) acted as chief mourner.
Jane was Henry's favourite wife, partly because she bore him a son and heir and he is said to have grieved for her at great length.
When the king died he had requested he be buried beside Jane in the chapel.
Henry VIII married Anne of Cleves on 6th January. He chose her as his bride from a portrait, however when he saw her in reality he was bitterly disappointed because she was a simple domestic woman. This marriage was never consummated and was annulled six months later which enabled him to marry Katherine Howard, in secret, on the 28th July. At this time, Cromwell fell from power and was accused of treason, imprisoned in the Tower of London and was beheaded.
King Henry VIII learns of Katherine's former lovers. He stripped her of her title on the 22nd November and imprisoned her in Syon House, Middlesex for 80 days.
Katherine Howard was taken from Syon House to the Tower of London on the 10th February. The following day Henry signed the Bill of Attainer into law and Katherine's execution was scheduled for 7.00 am on the 3rd February. She was beheaded on Tower Hill for infidelity and was buried in the Chapel Royal of St. Peter and Vincula in the Tower of London. Jane Rochford, her lady-in-waiting, was implicated in her crime and was executed with her on the same day. There were plans for a marriage between Prince Edward and the infant Princess Mary Stuart of Scotland (later Mary Queen of Scots) but this marriage was never arranged.
Henry married his sixth wife, Catherine Parr in the Holyday or Queen's Closet at Hampton Palace, adjoining the Chapel Royal, on 12th July. Catherine eventually outlived the King.
Princess Mary returns to court. Henry goes to Calais, besieges and takes Boulogne.
1544 - 1546:
England was at war with France.
Henry VIII died at his home in Greenwich Palace, London on 28th January after a reign of 38 years and was buried in St. Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle alongside his third wife, Jane Seymour. Upon his death Jane Seymour's nine year old son, Edward VI, was crowned King of England, with his uncle, Edward Seymour (the brother of Queen Jane), as his guardian. His coronation took place at Westminster Abbey, Middlesex on 20th February, but his reign was dominated by his mothers brother, the Protector Edward Seymour, the Duke of Somerset. Catherine Parr secretly married Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudley (the younger brother of Queen Jane).
On 7th September, Catherine Parr died during childbirth.
Thomas, Lord Seymour was executed for treason.
Less than a year before his death, King Edward was forced to sign a document prepared by the New Government Leader, the Duke of Northumberland, altering the succession to the throne of England.
Edward Seymour was deposed in October and wrongly accused of treason. He was executed on King Edwards orders.
Andrew Bayntun was born in 1515, however it is not certain where. The Bayntun family had been settled in Faulston House, but when John Bayntun (his grandfather) moved from there to old Bromham Hall in 1508, it is possible that John's eldest son, Sir Edward Bayntun, may have remained at Faulston until his father's death in 1516 and if that were the case, Andrew Bayntun would most likely have been born there.
He was the eldest son and heir, and inherited the title Lord of the Manor of Bromham, upon the death of his father, Sir Edward Bayntun, in 1544. Like his father, Andrew became one of Wiltshire's leading landowners and was also a Member of Parliament.
Andrew Bayntun is mentioned in many manoral deeds and indentures as Andrew Baynton, but from the beginning of the 17th century the family changed the spelling of their surname to Bayntun.
He studied French under John Palsgrave (d1554), who was in great demand as a teacher of French and Latin among the English nobility and gentry. Princess Mary, the sister of King Henry VIII, and later Queen of France was also one of his pupils. John Palsgrave was educated at Oxford and at the University of Paris.
Andrew wrote a preface to the Palsgrave's book Lesclarcissement de la langue francoyse (1530), a vast work of over 1000 pages, written to instruct the English in the rules of French grammar - the first bilingual dictionary of the two languages.
His love of the French language obviously took him to France, as a 20 year old, and on the 1st February 1535 he wrote a letter to Thomas Cromwell from Paris, which contained an interesting account of the troubles there at the time.
He began the letter by excusing his boldness in writing to him directly and goes on to say that he had always found the greatest condenscention in those highest in authority, indicating that Cromwell possessed that virtue more than anyone. He thanked him on his knees for benefits done to himself and his parents.
He goes on to say: "Paris is full of heretics, both men and women, with 20 already been burned and thousands in hiding, or who have already fled. Francis, the King of France, in his speech asked God to forgive his slackness in persecuting heretics over the previous two years and swore henceforth to burn all he could find". To do this, Andrew suggests, the king would have to shut the gates of Paris and set fire to the city.
A deed dated the 11th November 30 Henry VIII (1538) by Sir Edward Bayntun, six years before his death, gave to Andrew Bayntun, his eldest son and heir apparent, all his estate, term, title, and interest in the Manor of Bromham Battle, with the advowson of the Church of Bromham, and the Manor of Clench, as leased to him by the Abbot and Convent.
On the 20th March 1539, Andrew Bayntun again writes to Cromwell. In this letter he seems concerned that his absence had caused him concern and goes on to explain his misfortunes. It appears Andrew was part of Cromwell's escort party and must have rode regularly with him. However on this occasion he was not required and Andrew was absent for some time due to an illness and as a result father had disowned him for his actions, fearing Cromwell would take offence to his sudden disappearance from his duties.
to Cromwell gives a full account of his absence: "I beg
you will take no displeasure for my long absence, nor for my departing.
For when your Lordship rode from St. James's to the Court, my fellows
told me that I was not appointed to ride with you, not having your
livery. Considering how long you would be absent, I went to see my
friend Master Hyde who was likely to die of his wound. The matter
was before your Lordship not long ago, and he is bound to pray for
you. I lost my way on the Downs beyond Reading and caught a great
cold and ache which has just left me. My father (Sir Edward
Bayntun) is sore displeased and threatens to disinherit me,
which I think I never deserved. He cast me away for being absent from
you, which was more a fault to you than to him. I am at your command,
and I am as obedient a child to my father as can be".
In 1545, a year after his father's death, Andrew conveyed the Manor of Godswell and the Manor of Heywood to his brother, Sir Edward Bayntun. In 1547 he sold the Manor of Chelworth to Nicholas Snell. Chelworth was inherited by his grandfather, John Bayntun, in 1508 when it descended to him, along with the Manor of Bromham Roches.
An Indenture, dated the 10th May 38 Henry VIII (1547), mentions that Andrew Bayntun had sold to Nicholas Snell of Michell Kynton, his right in a tenement in Blakedon called 'Morcombe', free of all encumbrances.
Between the years 1545 and 1549, Sir Andrew Bayntun made an extraordinary agreement with Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudley, whereby the two men exchanged the whole of their properties in Wiltshire. Lord Seymour was then married to Catherine Parr, the widow and sixth wife of Henry VIII but had a reputation for the ladies, having made advances to the Princess Elizabeth the future Elizabeth I, Queen of England while he was married to Catherine.
Both men were to enjoy their inheritance during their lifetime, but Bayntun's possessions, including Bromham and other manors, would go to Seymour and his heirs forever. In turn, Seymour's property, was after his death, to pass only to Bayntun and his direct descendants, with remainder to the heirs of Seymour.
Each gave as security, £4,000, for the due performance of his share of the bargain, and in accordance with this, we find in the Patent Rolls 37 Henry VIII (1545), a licence given to Seymour and Bayntun jointly to convey to trustees, Bromham and other Bayntun properties.
So when Seymour was attained and later beheaded for high treason on the 10th March 1549 and his estates forfeited to the Crown as did the manors and lands of Andrew Bayntun, and all estates that Seymour ever had therein, to the grave disinheritance of Andrew Bayntun. But he petitioned to the court for the recovery of his lands.
The court ruled that Andrew Bayntun duly performed his share of the agreement, but Seymour performed nothing of his, nor paid any of the £4,000 which he had agreed to forfeit for such default. The petition was granted by Queen Mary, in the first year of her reign, and most of Andrew Bayntun's former lands, including the Manor of Bromham, were restored to him by 1553.
A deed from the Court of Chancery, Six Clerks Office, confirms the reversion of some of these manors, which previously belonged to Andrew, that were forfeited to the crown, when Seymour was attained for treason on the 2nd and 3rd years of Edward VI, including the Manor of Stanley and the Manor of Rowden.
The above agreement sounds almost beyond belief, but every stage in it is supported by documentary proof. By what means did Seymour convince Bayntun to enter into an unequal bargain with him, and made him fulfill his share, while neglecting his own, yet finally managed to anticipate its provisions and obtain possession of Bromham during Andrew's lifetime. What was even more remarkable was that Andrew Bayntun was unmarried at this time and had entered into this agreement without a son or rightful heir.
Sir Andrew Bayntun was married twice first to Philippa Breylewte, with whom he had a daughter, born 1552, called Anne. Philippa was the daughter of Gillam Breylewte, of France who is said to have been an Embroider to King Henry VIII. His second marriage took place some time after 1562 to Frances Lee, the daughter of Ralph Lee.
Andrew was M.P. for Horsham Boro in 1547, Westbury in 1553, Marlborough in 1555 and Calne in 1558-1559.
In 1553 he sold the Manor of Chelworth to William Snell and a further deed, dated 1555, shows Andrew Bayntun renewing the lease of the Manor of Clench to William Wyatt, Joan his wife and Geoffrey his son.
Also in 1555, Andrew Bayntun, in his early ownership of Bremhill, endowed St. John the Baptist's Chapel with two houses called Church House and Priest's House and two parcels of land called Chapel Hay and Butt Hay. Also in that year he sold the Manor of Chisenbury or Chisenbury de la Folly to Nicholas Snell and the Manor of Whaddon with its Fulling Mill to Thomas Long of Trowbridge, the brother of Henry Long a clothier and a very wealthy man at the time.
Some time before 1556, Andrew sold Nebels Farm, another of the many de la Mare properties, to Sir Henry Long and in 1557 he sold the Manor of Shaw in the parish of Melksham to John Gerrish of Seend.
Andrew Bayntun owned the Manor of Bremhill, including 30 acres of coppice wood, inherited from his father, Sir Edward Bayntun, but some years earlier (it was alleged) Andrew had made a grant or lease of this woodland to William Sharyngton and Gabriel Pledall of Monkton. At this time, there was no system of Title Deeds to keep a check on who owned which piece of land. The only way to get land ownership into a lasting record was to take a case to court.
Andrew had obviously planned to marry Frances, the daughter of Ralph Lee, in an effort to provide a male heir as he had no surviving male children from his previous marriage to Philippa Breylewte and he wanted to ensure that his property would go to adult male heirs of the Bayntun family only.
Therefore in early July 1560, he drew up an Indenture with his brother Edward Bayntun, recording their agreement that Andrew should hold the land for his lifetime; after his death it should revert to his brother Edward and his wife Agnes; after their deaths it should revert to Andrews male heirs (if any were forthcoming); if neither of the brothers left surviving male heirs at their deaths, then the lands were to descend to a third brother, Henry, and his male heirs; if Henry had no male heirs, then the lands were to go to a half-brother (also named Henry, from his fathers second marriage) and his male heirs.
This covenant that Andrew made with his brother, Edward, by which Andrew was to stand seized to the use of himself for life and remainder to Edward in tail male was to exclude females from his land, as Andrew had no sons, but definitely had a daughter who was excluded by this covenant. But this covenant between the brothers was not necessarily a legal contract. That is to say, they required something to be done not just a mere promise, having no legal meaning.
Consideration was required for something to be done, at the time or in the future, to fulfil his desire for the land to remain in the Bayntun name and not just because of a long-standing affection of the two brothers. Andrews desire to marry Frances Lee made this possible, as marriage was a benefit that made the agreement a valid contract or at least a valuable consideration.
This suggests that this Indenture was quite possibly some form of marriage settlement and an opportunity for Andrew to settle the future descent of his lands. It further ensured that any illegitimate son, from any previous marriage or relationship, would have no rights to inheritance.
The terms of this Indenture were fully rehearsed in the subsequent court case. It set out that after the death of Andrew and his brother, Edward, the lands would first go to any male heirs of the said Andrew Bayntun legitimately thereafter to be procreated of the body of Frances Lee, daughter of Ralph Lee, deceased.
Andrews worry seems to have been that he might die before any male heir he had was of age. In that case, the lands would be taken into wardship by the Crown and if he had no male heirs, they might descend to his daughter, and thus ultimately become the property of her eventual husband. His Indenture would act like an entail male; it would ensure that after his death the property would go only to adult men of the blood and name of the Bayntuns as he had it written in the records.
That is why his brother, Edward, was named to inherit his lands at his death and to hold them until such time as any male heir born to Andrew and Frances became of age. There is further evidence of this security in a deed dated 3 Elizabeth (1561) quite possibly Andrew's will when he entailed the remaining Bayntun estates, including the Manor of Bromham on his next brother, Edward and his wife Agnes. The terms of this Indenture also made provision for any such male heir.
But at this time, Andrew was still legally married to Philippa Breylewte, although they had parted company. Subsequently he severed all links with her and refused to pay back a £300 bond given to him by her father, Gillam Breylewte, at the time of their marriage. Gillam however pursued him for the return of this money and in Michaelmas of that year Andrew was arrested in the City of London and by the advice and procurement of his brother, Edward Bayntun and various other acquaintances, he submitted himself to examination at court.
On the 9th June 1562, Andrew appeared before the Court of Arches an Ecclesiastical Court of the Church of England covering the Province of Canterbury. An official report of this hearing was obtained, in the form of a letter, by Henry Bayntun, Andrew's nephew, on the 25th April 1597. This was perhaps when proof of ownership of the property was required years later, as a result of a dispute, or possibly in connection to a sale.
In court, Andrew Bayntun gave evidence under oath and answered a series of questions put to him. In response, he said he sought a divorce from his wife on the grounds that she had been previously married at St. Paul's Cathedral London to John de Boyse. He claimed he had no knowledge of it prior to his own marriage and was unwilling to lead his life in infamy and shame after learning of this contract of marriage to de Boyse. He told the court he no longer wanted to be part of this marriage and said he had given the court enough evidence for them to discharge him from it.
The court found in favour of Andrew and granted him a divorce. However, by the request of Gillam, he was forced to pay a settlement, by way of an annuity, to Philippa Breylewte of £30 a year for the duration of her life only. It is alleged he married Frances Lee some time later, although no proof of this marriage exists. The majority of the records, from this period, in the Court of Arches were destroyed in the great fire of London and there is not a great deal of information surrounding the material which has survived.
In 1562 Andrew sold a Manor in Bulkington to Roger Earth of Salisbury.
On the 16th November 1563 Sir Andrew inherited his aunt Margery's estate after her death. Margery Bayntun was the sister of Andrew's father, Sir Edward Bayntun and had been married to John Allen of Hatfield, Peverell, Essex. He received, among other lands, the Rectory of the Church of All Saints, Hertford and the Manor of Brickindon and the Manor of Waltham All Saints, Essex. About this time he sold the Manor of Chilton Candover to John Fisher which had been in the family since 1372.
However on the 21st February 1564 Andrew Bayntun died before his aunt's affairs were finalised and Margery's inheritance was passed onto his only daughter, Anne, being his next of kin, who was aged 12 at the time. She was the daughter of his first wife, Philippa Breylewte.
Sir Andrew's second marriage to Frances Lee had also failed to produce a male heir and the Bayntun estate was subsequently passed onto his brother and in accordance with the above mentioned deed of 1560 and administration of his goods, etc, was committed to his successor, Edward Bayntun.
After Andrew's death, Edward was anxious to take over all the property, and to have some legal proof that he was the owner. In March 1564, William Sharyngton and Gabriel Pledall had laid claim to the 30 acres of woodland under the terms of the above mentioned Grant. To expel them, and confirm his ownership of the property, Edward Bayntun then sent his servants in to cut the coppice wood and graze animals in the disputed lands.
Breaking and entering with force and arms, theft of property and destruction of crops or woodland were all very stock charges in the Courts of the King's Bench and Common Pleas. Such accusations generally signified that there was disputed ownership of the property in question.
Edward's servants cut down and took away 200 cart-loads of the said wood to the value of £40 and also they caused the growing shoots of the wood, formally growing there, to be eaten off, destroyed and consumed by various animals such as horses, steers, cows, pigs and sheep.
Sharyngton and Pledall promptly lodged an Action in one of the Royal Courts (probably the Court of Common Pleas, but possibly the Queens Bench). The action was started in Easter Term 1564 (probably April to May) and first appeared in the following Michaelmas Term (October 1564), where the Attorneys of each party stated their case, and the Indenture of 1560 was fully described as part of the defence case.
As was quite usual in the Royal Courts, the case was then adjourned a number of times, and judgement against Sharyngton and Pledall was finally given in June 1566. To make quite sure that there could be no doubt about the ownership and descent of the lands, Edward Bayntun paid for an Inspeximus which is an Exemplification, or copy of Proof of Ownership, for himself of the whole legal process, and this was drawn up on the 3rd July 1566.
An Indenture at this period was a formal way of recording any transaction involving commitments by two or more parties. In order that both parties to the transaction should have an identical and identifiable record, the agreement was written out by the Clerks twice (or sometimes three times) on sheets of parchment; then a jagged line was cut between the two (or three) copies, and each party took one piece.
This meant that if there was any dispute between them in the future, each party should be able to produce a written copy of their agreement whose edge would exactly fit the other partys copy. This practice neatly discouraged forgery. Because the practice was often used for apprenticeship agreements, the term Indentures later came to be used almost synonymously with apprenticeship'.
There is evidence to suggest that Andrew Bayntun, despite being one of Wiltshire's leading landowners, may have negotiated sales of manors to other Wiltshire gentry, including Nicholas Snell and Gabriel Pledall, without security. Certainly his exchange of Bayntun property with Sir Thomas Seymour could have resulted in him losing all his inheritance. He was indeed lucky, after Seymour was executed, to have most of his lands returned to him by the Queen.
But later dealings with the notorious Gabriel Pledall and the corrupt Sir William Sharyngton also took place, as both men appear in Andrew's will as executors, with his lands assigned to them, probably as a result of deceit or forgery. This may very well be the main reason why he entailed the remaining Bayntun estates to his brother, Edward.
In the years that followed Andrew's death, Edward Bayntun was embroiled in law suits over land and it is not known if he recovered all of the Bayntun property, although a counterpart release, dated the 3rd April 18 Elizabeth I (1576) shows Sir Henry Sharyngton, of Lacock (son of the above mentioned William), releasing all his rights in the Manors of Bremhill and Bromham Battle and land in Peusey, Wotton Rivers and Foxeham.
Sir Andrew Bayntun was buried in St. Andrew's Church, Chippenham where his badly preserved tomb is in the south chancel chapel, rebuilt as chantry to the Virgin Mary, now known as The Lady Chapel (see photo below). It is not clear why he, or his family, chose St. Andrew's Church as his final resting place and not the Bayntun Chapel in the Church of St. Nicholas at Bromham.
The translation means:
In this dark tomb lies an arms-bearing gentleman. Who was named Andrew Baynton. Sired by the soldier Edward, knight well known everywhere. He was his heir. Now he reposes this earth.
Because Sir Andrew Bayntun had no son as heir, the Bayntun estate was subsequently passed onto his brother Edward Bayntun